PT-91
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modified: Nov 10, 2012

PT-91 Twardy (meaning "resilient") is a Polish main battle tank. It is an advanced version of the Soviet T-72M1 which was license manufactured in Poland.

The first prototype was completed in 1992. A small number were built for the Polish Army. Production was undertaken at the Bumar-Labedy plant.

The driver is located at the front, the turret in the middle, and the engine at the rear. In the turret, the gunner is seated on the left and commander on the right. The turret can be traversed 360°.

Improvements include the fitting of new ERAWA-1 and ERAWA-2 explosive reactive armor for the hull and turret. PT-91 has the OBRA laser warning system which consists of four antennae fitted around the turret and can be operated in automatic and manual modes. 12 Tellur smoke grenade launchers are mounted on either side of the turret and operate in conjunction with the OBRA laser warning system. A computerized fire control system is installed. The commander and driver have the POD-72 and PNK-72 passive night sights respectively.

Other modifications include an improved NBC protection system, installation of a hull escape hatch, increased protection against mines for the driver, a new communication system, and an improved fire detection and suppression system. The engine has been uprated and its cooling system improved.

The skirts are steel with the forward part covered by ERAWA-1 blocks. The tracks are equipped with rubber pads to reduce noise and improve traction.

The Polish PW-LWD rocket-propelled mineclearing system can be installed on the rear of the hull.


References: JAA5, JTCV